Impact Assessment of Open Defecation Dunghill and Storm Water Runoff on the Quality of Selected Surface Water Streams in Peri-Urban Areas of Enugu, Nigeria

Research areas: Year: 2014
Type of Publication: Article Keywords: Open defecation, dunghill, storm water, streams, Enugu urban
  • Ogwo, O.G P.A. and Ogu
Journal: Journal of Environmental Sciences And Policy Evaluation Volume: 4
Number: 2 Pages: 83 - 108
Month: December
The impact of open defecation dunghill and storm water runoff on surface water streams in peri-urban areas of Enugu, Nigeria was assessed. Water samples from five streams that supply water to the areas (Ekulu, Asiata, Ava, Ariaku and Idaw) were collected and analyzed for some physico-chemical and bacteriological properties using standard methods. Results obtained were compared with national and international regulatory agencies (WHO and FEPA, Nigeria). Results showed that the five streams were heavily contaminated with E coli, total and fecal coliform bacteria resulting from open defecation and storm water runoff. Results also show that pH, EC, turbidity, TSS, TDS, BOD and COD were significantly higher than the WHO and Nigeria Federal Ministry of Environment maximum permissible limits, while nitrate, phosphate, sulphate, organic carbon, total nitrogen, chloride were within the permissible limits, but can exceed the limits if the trend continues without checkmating. Increased concentration of coliform bacteria above the permissible limits in water for domestic uses is of great concern and requires urgent attention. Based on the findings, the surface water streams studied in the areas are contaminated and therefore are not fit for drinking without proper treatment. The study recommends proper treatment of water from these sources before use